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Golden Monkey Trekking: 8 Must-See Wonders in Rwanda’s Wilderness

Golden monkey trekking is a captivating wildlife experience that allows visitors to encounter and observe golden monkeys in their natural habitat.

Golden monkey trekking offers a unique opportunity to connect with these charming and endangered primates while contributing to their conservation. The experience provides a balance between adventure, education, and responsible tourism in the beautiful landscapes of East Africa.

Golden monkeys, scientifically known as Cercopithecus kandti or Cercopithecus mitis kandti, are a species of Old World monkey restricted to the the bamboo forests of the Virunga Mountains in East Africa. They are recognized for their striking appearance, characterized by vibrant golden-orange fur, contrasting with dark limbs and a pale face

This unique activity can only be done specifically in Rwanda’s Volcanoes national park and Uganda’s Mgahinga gorilla national park in the whole world!

7 Compelling Reasons Why Golden Monkeys Are a Must-See Primate Species

Golden monkey trekking offers a truly unique primate encounter due to several distinct features:

  1. Endemic Rarity

Golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti) are an endemic species found solely in the Virunga Massif, spanning Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Their limited geographical range makes encounters with these charismatic primates a rare and exclusive experience.

  1. Distinctive Appearance

These monkeys are aptly named for their striking appearance, featuring a brilliant coat of golden-orange fur complemented by contrasting dark faces. Their vibrant colors and distinctive features make them visually captivating creatures, unlike any other primate species in the region.

  1. Fascinating Social Structures

Golden monkeys live in cohesive social groups, typically consisting of several individuals led by a dominant male. Trekking to observe these primates provides a unique opportunity to witness their intricate social dynamics, including hierarchical structures, communal care of offspring, and elaborate communication through vocalizations and body language.

  1. Specialized Habitat

Golden monkeys primarily inhabit bamboo forests and montane forests at higher altitudes, ranging from 2,200 to 4,300 meters above sea level. Exploring these unique habitats during a trekking excursion offers not only the chance to encounter golden monkeys but also to appreciate the rich biodiversity of these ecosystems, including endemic plant species and other wildlife.

  1. Conservation Importance

As an endangered species, golden monkeys are of significant conservation concern. Engaging in golden monkey trekking activities directly supports conservation efforts aimed at protecting their habitats, mitigating human-wildlife conflict, and monitoring population trends to ensure their long-term survival.

  1. Intimate Encounters

Golden monkeys are known for their relatively tolerant behavior towards humans, often exhibiting curiosity and allowing for close observation during trekking encounters. This proximity provides trekkers with memorable and intimate experiences, allowing for detailed observation of their behavior and natural interactions within their environment.

  1. Educational Opportunities

Golden monkey trekking experiences also serve as valuable educational opportunities, fostering awareness about the importance of primate conservation, habitat preservation, and sustainable ecotourism practices. Through guided treks led by knowledgeable local guides, participants gain insights into the ecological significance of golden monkeys and the broader conservation challenges facing the Virunga Massif.

Amazing features of Golden Monkeys in Rwanda 

Golden Monkey feeding in Volcanoes national park Rwanda
Golden Monkey feeding in Volcanoes national park in Rwanda
  1. Distinctive Coloration

The most prominent feature of golden monkeys is their golden-orange fur, which covers much of their body, including the back, flanks, and tail. Their underparts are lighter in color.

  1. Facial Features

Golden monkeys have a pale face with a white or pinkish color around the eyes, nose, and mouth. The skin on their face is not covered in fur, giving them a distinctive appearance.

  1. Size and Build

Golden monkeys are medium-sized primates, with males being slightly larger than females. They have a robust build, adapted to their arboreal lifestyle in mountainous bamboo forests.

Behavior and Habitat of Golden monkeys in Rwanda 

  1. Social Structure:

Golden monkeys are known for their social nature, living in groups called troops. Troops can vary in size, often consisting of multiple males, females, and their offspring.

  1. Diet:

Their diet primarily consists of bamboo leaves and shoots, but they also consume a variety of other plant materials, fruits, and insects. The specialized diet of golden monkeys is adapted to their bamboo forest habitat.

  1. Habitat:

Golden monkeys are endemic to the Virunga Massif, a chain of volcanic mountains that straddles the borders of Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They inhabit the bamboo forests on the slopes of these mountains.

Golden monkey trekking in Volcanoes National Park Rwanda 

Golden Monkey Trekking in Rwanda
Golden monkey with her baby in Volcanoes national park in Rwanda

Volcanoes National Park is renowned not only for gorilla trekking but also for golden monkey trekking. The park is home to the endangered golden monkeys, and visitors have the opportunity to observe their playful antics in the bamboo forests.

Embarking on a golden monkey trekking expedition is an immersive journey into the heart of Rwanda’s natural splendor. Guided by seasoned park rangers, adventurers traverse the lush forest trails, where every step is accompanied by the symphony of the wilderness.

As the mist dissipates, revealing the sun-kissed canopy above, the anticipation builds. Then, amidst the verdant foliage, a flash of gold catches the eye—a troop of golden monkeys, frolicking in their arboreal realm. Observing these playful creatures in their natural habitat is a mesmerizing spectacle, offering a glimpse into their intricate social dynamics and agile acrobatics.

Process of Golden Monkey trekking in Rwanda 

Permit Acquisition:

Similar to gorilla trekking, obtaining a golden monkey trekking permit is a prerequisite. Permits are typically limited to a specific number each day to manage the impact on the monkeys and their habitats.


Before the trek, participants receive a briefing from park rangers. The briefing covers essential guidelines, safety precautions, and information about the golden monkey groups visitors are about to encounter.

Hiking and Trekking

Golden monkey trekking involves hiking through the lush and sometimes challenging terrain of bamboo forests. The trekking duration can vary, and participants should be prepared for varying trail conditions.

Monkey Encounter

Once the golden monkey group is located, visitors spend a designated amount of time observing and photographing them. Golden monkeys are known for their vibrant fur colors and playful behavior, making the encounter a delightful and memorable experience.

Photography and Interaction

Participants are typically allowed to take photographs during the encounter, following guidelines to ensure the well-being of the monkeys. Similar to gorilla trekking, maintaining a respectful distance and minimizing disturbance is crucial.

Return Journey

After the golden monkey encounter, trekkers return to the starting point, completing the trek. The return journey may offer additional opportunities to enjoy the natural beauty of the park.

How Golden monkey trekking is important in Rwanda 

Intore dance
Rwanda’s Intore dance to entertain tourists after golden monkey trekking.

Conservation Impact

Revenue generated by Rwanda Development Board (RDB)  from golden monkey trekking permits contributes to the conservation of golden monkeys and their habitats. This income helps fund conservation initiatives and supports local communities.


Like other wildlife experiences, golden monkey trekking emphasizes sustainability and responsible tourism practices. Visitors are encouraged to follow ethical guidelines to minimize their impact on the monkeys and the environment.

Community Involvement

Tourism activities, including golden monkey trekking, often involve local communities. This engagement provides economic benefits and underscores the importance of protecting the natural resources in these areas.

Golden monkeys are not only a symbol of the unique biodiversity of the Virunga Massif but also a flagship species for conservation efforts in the region. Their captivating appearance and social behaviors make them a highlight for those fortunate enough to observe them during golden monkey trekking experiences.